Utilization:sledge dog for heavy loads, water dog.


Clasification F.C.I.: Group 2 Pincher and Schnauzer Type - Molossian and Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs.

Section 2.2:Molossian Type, Mountain Dogs without working trial.


Short Historical Survey: the breed orginated in the island of Newfoundland from dog indigenous and the big black bear dog introduced by the Vickings after the year 1100.  With the advent of European fishermen a variety of new breeds helped to shape and reinvigorate the breed, but the essential characteristics remained. When the colonisation of the island began in 1610, the Newfoundland Dog was already largerly in possesion of his proper morphology and natural behaviour. These features allowed him to withstand the rigours of extreme climate and sea's adversity while pulling heavy loads on land or serving as water and life-guard dog.


General appearence: the Newfoundland is massive, with powerfull body, well muscled and well co-ordinated in his movements.


Important proportions: the lenght of the body from the withers to the root of the tail is equal to the distance from the withers to the ground. The body is compact. The body of the bitch may be slightly longer and is less massive than that of the dog. The distance from the withers to the underside of the chest is greater than the distance from the underside of the chest to the ground.


Behaviour and temperament: the Newfoundland expression reflects benevolence and softness. Dignified joyfull and creative, he is known for his sterling gentleness and serenity.


Head: massive. The head of the bitch follows the same general conformation as male's, but is less massive.

Cranial region:

Scull: broad, with slightly arched crown and strongly developed occipital bone.

Stop: evident, but never abrupt.

Facial region:

Nose: large, well pigmented, nostrils well developed. Colour: black on black and black&white dogs, brown on brown dogs.

Muzzle: definitely square, deep and moderately short, covered with short fine hair and free from wrinclers. The corners of the mouth are evident, but not excessively pronounced.

Cheeks: soft.

Bite: scissors or level bite.


Eyes: relatively small, deep set; they are wide apart and show no haw. Colour: dark brown in black and black&white dogs, lighter shades permitted in brown dogs.


Ears: relatively small, triangular with rounded tips, well set back on the side of the head and close lying. When the ear of adult dog is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side.


Neck: strong, muscular, well set in the shoulders, long enough to permit dignified head carriage. The neck should not show excessive dewlap.


Body: bone structure is massive throughout. Viewed from the side, the body is deep and vigorous.

Top line: level and firm from the withers to the rump.

Back: broad.

Loin: strong and well muscled.

Rump: broad, sloping at angle of about 30 degrees.

Chest: broad, full and deep, with good spread of ribs.

Abdomen and underline: almost level and never tucked up.


Forequarters: the forelegs are straight and parallel also when dog is walking or slowly trotting.

Shoulders: very well muscled, well laid back at angle approaching 45 degrees to the horizontal line.

Elbows: close to the chest.

Pasterns: slightly sloping.

Forefeet: large and proportionate to the body, well rounded and tight, with firm and compact toes. Webbing of toes is present. Nails black in black, and black&white dogs, horn coloured in brown dogs. In case of white toes, the nails should not be black.


Hindquarters: because driving power for pulling loads, swimming or covering ground efficiently is largery dependent uppon the hindquarters, the rear structure of Newfoundland is prime importance. The pelvis has to be strong, broad and long.

Upper thighs: wide and muscular.

Stiffle: well bent, but not so as to give a crouching appearance.

Lower things: strong and fairy long.

Hocks: relatively short, well let down and well apart, parallel to each other; they turn neither in nor out.

Hindfeet: firm and tight. Nail colout as in forefeet. Dewclaws, if present, should have been removed.


Tail: the tail acts as a rudder when the Newfoundland is swimming; therefore it is strong and broad at the base. When the dog is standing, the tail hangs down with, possibly, a little curve at the tip; reaching to or slightly below the hocks. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried straight out with slight upward curve, but never curled over the back nor curved inward between the legs.


Gait/movement: the Newfoundland moves with good reach of the forelegs and strong drive of hindquarters, giving the impression of effortless power. A slight roll of back is natural. As the speed increase, the dog tends to single track with the topline remaining level.


Coat:

Hair: the Newfoundland has a water resistant double coat. The outer coat is moderately long and straight with no curl. A slight wave is permisible. The undercoat is soft and dense, more dense in winter than in summer, but always found to some extent on the rump and chest. The hair on the head, muzzle and ears is short and fine.The front and rear legs are feathered. The tail is completely covered with long dense hair but does not form a flag.

Colour: Black, white and black, and brown.

Black: the traditional colour is black. The colour has to be as even as possible, but a slight tinge of sunburn is permissible. White markings on chest, toes and/ or tip of tail are permissible.

White and black: this variety is of historical significance for the breed. The preffered pattern of markings is black head with, preferably, a white blaze extending onto the muzzle, black saddle with even markings and black rump and upper tail. The remaining parts are to be white and can show a minimum of ticking.

Brown: the brown colour goes from chocolate to bronze. White markings on chest, toes and/or tip of tail are permissible.

White and black dogs and brown dogs are to be shown in the same class as black.


Size and weight: the average height at the withers is:

for adult males 71 cm
for adult bitches 66 cm

The average weight is:

approximately 60 kg for males
approximately 54 kg for bitches

Large size is desirable, but not to be favoured over symmetry, general soundness, power of structure and correct gait.


Faults: any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be in exact poportion to its degree:

- general appearance: legginess, lack of substance;
- general bone structure: sluggish appearance, fine bone;
- character: aggressivness, shyness;
- head: narrow;
- muzzle: snipey or long;
- flews: pronounced;
- eyes: round, protruding, yellow eyes, showing pronounced haw;
- back: roached, slack or swayed back;
- forequarters: down in pasterns, splayed toes, toeing in or out, lack of webbing between toes;
- hindquarters: straight stiffles, cowhocks, barrel legs, pigeon toes;
- tail: short, long, kink tail, curled tip;
- gait/movement: mincing, shuffling, crabbing, too close moving, weaving, crossing over in front, toeing out or distinctly toeing-in in front, hackney action, pacing;
- hair: completely open coat.


Eliminating faults:

- bad temperament;
- overshot or undershot bite, wry mouth;
- short and flat coat;
- markings of any other colour than white on a black or brown dogs;
- any other colour than black or white and black or brown.

Note: male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.